MARY REICHARD, HOST: Good morning!
The Supreme Court decided that nearly half of Oklahoma is a Native American reservation. We will talk with legal experts about what that means for the state.
I think we’re really just beginning to scratch the surface of the areas this, this decision could impact.
BRIAN BASHAM, HOST: Also some of your favorite grocery items may still be hard to find. We’ll get to the bottom of that.
Plus Myrna Brown brings a story of a life well lived.
And World commentator Ryan Bomberger on the founding principles of America.
REICHARD: It’s Tuesday, July 28th. This is The World and Everything in It from listener-supported WORLD Radio. I’m Mary Reichard.
BASHAM: And I’m Brian Basham. Good morning!
REICHARD: Up next, Kent Covington with today’s news.
GOP senators unveil new coronavirus relief proposal » Senate Republicans unveiled their vision for a new coronavirus relief package Monday.
It would include another round of $1,200 stimulus payments to many Americans. And Senator Chuck Grassley said the plan would continue a federal boost to jobless benefits, but not at the same level.
GRASSLEY: We want to encourage work, and we’ve learned a very tough lesson that when you pay people not to work, what do you expect?
Instead of $600 per week, he said the benefits would aim to replace about 70 percent of a worker’s lost income.
The trillion-dollar plan would also provide liability insurance to encourage employers to bring people back to work. And it would provide another, more targeted, round of small business loans.
Senator Tim Scott said another provision is aimed at helping one of the country’s hardest hit industries.
SCOTT: One of the provisions from the Finance Committee on the tax side of this is to increase the deduction for meals, business meals, from 50 percent to 100 percent. That will encourage more folks to spend more money in restaurants.
The package also includes more than $100 billion dollars to help reopen schools.
Senator Mitt Romney told reporters that as a result of the pandemic, Medicare and Social Security trust funds are approaching insolvency faster than anticipated. He said the plan would include a bipartisan process to review the problem.
ROMNEY: We have to address the solvency of our trust funds. We also have to finally deal with the amount of debt that we’re adding up.
Democratic leaders say the GOP plan doesn’t go nearly far enough. House Democrats passed a $3 trillion dollar relief bill back in May.
U.S. national security adviser tests positive for COVID-19 » President Trump’s National Security Adviser Robert O’Brien has reportedly tested positive for the coronavirus—making him the highest-ranking U.S. official to test positive so far.
The White House insisted that, “There is no risk of exposure to the president or the vice president” and that the “work of the National Security Council continues uninterrupted.”
White House economic adviser Larry Kudlow had said earlier that O’Brien’s daughter also has the virus. That is how officials think he was exposed. O’Brien also recently returned from a trip to France, where he met with top European officials.
Two big league games postponed following coronavirus outbreak » Just a few games into the new season, Major League Baseball had to postpone two games scheduled for last night due to a coronavirus outbreak. WORLD’s Anna Johansen reports.
AJ: More than a dozen Miami Marlins players and staff members tested positive in an outbreak that stranded the team in Philadelphia.
The Marlins’ home opener against Baltimore was called off.
Last night’s Yankees-Phillies game in Philadelphia was also canceled … because the Yankees would have been in the same visiting clubhouse the Marlins just used.
Nine Marlins players and five staff members reportedly received positive results from tests conducted Friday.
The Marlins postponed their flight home Sunday night after their series finale against the Phillies. Major League Baseball said in a statement that “The members of the Marlins’ traveling party are self-quarantining in place while awaiting” more test results.
Reporting for WORLD, I’m Anna Johansen.
Moderna vaccine begins final-stage of testing » Some 30,000 Americans are rolling up their sleeves to receive shots … in the biggest test yet of an experimental COVID-19 vaccine.
The Phase 3 trial began on Monday … the final-stage testing of the vaccine, developed by biotech firm Moderna and the National Institutes of Health.
Volunteers across the country won’t know whether they’re receiving the actual vaccine or a placebo. Researchers will watch both groups closely to see if the infection rate is lower among those receiving the vaccine.
Moderna CEO Stephane Bancel said developers could have the results in a few months.
BANCEL: October is possible. It’s already an optimistic scenario. It could be November. Again, at this stage, it’s impossible for us to know precisely.
The U.S. government has invested billions in several vaccine candidates as part of Operation Warp Speed … which aims to deliver 300 million doses of an effective vaccine by January.
President Trump said Monday that a second vaccine is set to enter Phase 3 testing “in a matter of days.”
John Lewis lies in state at Capitol »
SOUND (Amazing Grace NATS): [In and under, very slowly out]
Sounds from the Capitol Rotunda … where the body of congressman and civil rights icon John Lewis lies in state in a flag-draped casket.
On Monday, congressional leaders gathered in a solemn display of unity to honor the late Democratic lawmaker.
House Speaker Nancy Pelosi called Lewis the “conscience of the Congress.”
PELOSI: Here in Congress, John was revered and beloved on both sides of the aisle, on both sides of the Capitol.
Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell praised the longtime Georgia congressman as a model of courage and a “peacemaker.”
MCCONNELL: Even though the world around him gave him every cause for bitterness, he stubbornly treated everyone with respect and love, all so that as his friend, Dr. King, once put it, we could build a community at peace with itself.
Lewis died this month at the age of 80. Born to sharecroppers during Jim Crow segregation, Lewis was beaten by Alabama state troopers during the civil rights movement, spoke ahead of King’s “I Have a Dream” speech in 1963 … and was awarded the Medal of Freedom in 2011.
His remains will lie in state at the Capitol again today. The family will hold a private funeral Thursday in Atlanta.
I’m Kent Covington.
Straight ahead: a surprise Supreme Court ruling complicates legal cases in Oklahoma.
Plus, Ryan Bomberger on America’s eternal founding principles.
This is The World and Everything in It.
BRIAN BASHAM, HOST: It’s Tuesday, the 28th of July, 2020.
Thanks for joining us today for The World and Everything in It. Glad to have you along! Good morning, I’m Brian Basham.
MARY REICHARD, HOST: And I’m Mary Reichard.
First up … a landmark Supreme Court ruling.
In 19-97, a state court in Oklahoma convicted Native American Jimcy McGirt… of committing heinous crimes against a 4-year-old Native American girl near Tulsa. He got 500 years plus life without parole for his crimes.
But McGirt’s lawyers argued he committed those crimes on Native American land. That meant only a federal or tribal court could try him, not the state of Oklahoma. In May, McGirt made that case before the U.S. Supreme Court.
BASHAM: The legal question boiled down to whether the land where McGirt committed his crime is or was an Indian reservation. To the surprise of many legal analysts, the Supreme Court ruled 5-4 in McGirt’s favor … voiding his state conviction. WORLD’s Sarah Schweinsberg reports now on how that could affect other criminal cases in the state.
SARAH SCHWEINSBERG, REPORTER: The Supreme Court’s ruling sent shockwaves through Oklahoma.
News headline: And in the wake of that landmark Supreme Court ruling that the Muscogee Creek Nation is still an Indian reservation…. A huge case coming out of Washington D.C.
That’s because the high court found that much of eastern Oklahoma is actually Native American reservation land.
Jimcy McGirt committed his crime near Tulsa, which sits in the historical boundaries of the Creek Reservation. Congress and the Creek Tribe signed a treaty in 18-32 that created the Creek Reservation.
That after Congress forced the Creek to head west on the Trail of Tears along with the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cherokee, and Seminoles. They settled in what is now Eastern Oklahoma.
Over time, federal policies encouraged white settlers to come to the area. By the 20th century, the territory applied for statehood, and Congress admitted Oklahoma to the Union in 19-07.
Ann Tweedy is a tribal law professor at the University of South Dakota. She says McGirt’s lawyers successfully argued that Congress never formally repealed its treaty with the Creek Nation. Or, in legal terms, it never “disestablished” the Creek Reservation.
Tweedy: A 2016 case called Nebraska v. Parker, that said that the statutory language prong is the most important, and so here, the court followed that 2016 case and said, yes, the statutory language is the central question, and here, it doesn’t show that Congress intended to disestablish this reservation.
Under this line of reasoning, the Creek Reservation still exists along with the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cherokee, and Seminole reservations.
The decision affects a large swath of the state’s population. About 1-point-8 million people in Eastern Oklahoma now live on reservation land. And 400-thousand of them live in Tulsa—Oklahoma’s second largest city.
But only about 15 percent of Eastern Oklahoma’s population is Native American. Tweedy says on questions of Native American sovereignty, the Supreme Court has typically taken those demographics into account. This decision is a significant departure.
Tweedy: The majority opinion… talks about the fact that the Creek Nation wouldn’t have anticipated this large number of non-Natives on its reservation, just as the non-Natives might not have anticipated being on a reservation. It’s a two way street.
So what are the everyday implications of the ruling?
The first and biggest involves criminal cases. Tweedy says crimes involving Native American perpetrators or victims will now most likely be handled by a tribal court or the federal government. Not Oklahoma.
Tweedy: If a non-Indian commits a crime against a non Indian, then that would go to state court. But other than that, most things are going to go to federal court. And if the crime is committed by a Native American, it could also go to tribal court.
But discerning which cases fall under whose jurisdiction isn’t that simple, says Zack Smith. He’s a legal fellow at the Heritage Foundation.
Smith: It’s unclear which set of courts, Oklahoma courts or federal courts, have to be the ones to resolve any disputes. It just creates a lot of confusion.
The ruling also calls into question past state criminal convictions. Legal analysts estimate as many as 2,000 other state convictions could now be overturned and left in limbo.
Cases like Jimcy McGirt’s will have to be retried.
5 Smith: It’ll be up to the federal government to try him if they want to move forward with this case, which is a very difficult thing for them to do because he was convicted in 1997… It’s tough to retry someone after that many years.
Ann Tweedy and Zack Smith both say the case also raises questions about tax law, civil jurisdiction, family law, land use, and environmental regulations. Resources will also have to be shuffled between state and federal offices.
SMITH: I think we’re really just beginning to scratch the surface of the areas this, this decision could impact.
But some legal observers say states and tribes have been negotiating jurisdictions for more than a century now. This will be doable as well. Forrest Tahdooahnippah is a tribal law lawyer and a member of the Comanche Nation of Western Oklahoma.
Tahdooahnippah: The idea of the majority is this is going to certainly change the status quo. But it’s something that… will just bring the tribe and the state back to the negotiating table to re-address and solve any sort of gray areas that may exist.
Tahdooahnippah says he also believes the case is significant but that the power it gives back to the tribes is overblown. It’s more symbolic than anything.
Tahdooahnippah: Because there’s not Indians that live and work there, you know, the state will still have a lot of jurisdiction… And so it was just giving the tribe recognition that this reservation was never taken away..
But Tahdooahnippah says the ruling will most likely inspire other tribes without legal jurisdiction over their historic reservations to seek recognition.
Tahdooahnippah: There’s a more likelihood that the rights will be upheld, unless there really is a very specific congressional statute that says this treaty right is going to no longer exist.
Reporting for WORLD, I’m Sarah Schweinsberg.
BRIAN BASHAM, HOST: Coming up next on The World and Everything in It: supply chain changes.
Empty grocery store shelves arrived early on when COVID-19 hit. Panicked shoppers bought every roll of toilet paper and bottle of hand sanitizer they could get their hands on. Staples like eggs and flour suddenly became a hot commodity. Grocery stores put limits on the quantity shoppers could take home.
MARY REICHARD, HOST: Now four months later, most of those quantity limits are gone. But some grocery store shelves are still pretty bare.
Lane Cohee teaches supply chain management at Palm Beach Atlantic University, a Christian college in South Florida. He joins us now to help explain the ongoing shortages. Welcome to the program, professor Cohee!
LANE COHEE, GUEST: Thank you, Mary. It’s a pleasure to be on.
REICHARD: So, we’ve been in this so-called new normal for four months. It seems that suppliers should have been able to adjust by now. Why are we still seeing shortages in some areas?
COHEE: Two things to know. First of all, we, we saw a huge shift in terms of the way in which we were buying things and from where we’re buying them. And although that has kind of stabilized because, you know, we are able to go to restaurants to some degree and we are opening schools or planning to do so, it’s still significantly different in terms of the way in which we’re buying. … So, so radically that, um, it’s going to take some time for manufacturers and the supply chain to catch up.
REICHARD: There was a lot of concern early on about meat shortages. Those haven’t been much of a problem. Why didn’t those shortages materialize?
COHEE: First of all, I think the meat producers and distributors were able to do a really effective job at keeping the plants open. … The other thing, the president instituted the Defense Production Act and basically mandating to keep the food plants open and, you know, that certainly had some weight behind it. And, and in unified decision making at the federal level as opposed to state and municipalities trying to do that. So I think that also provided some capability, but by and large, more resilience than perhaps we originally thought in the supply chain, and yes, we did see shortages, but it wasn’t perhaps as extreme as we might’ve been led to believe.
REICHARD: We’ve talked about cleaning supplies. Most people are sanitizing more often, so some shortages there are understandable. I am a bit surprised by the limited quantities of staples like mac and cheese. Is that because people are keeping their pantries stocked, or is something else going on?
COHEE: Well, … if you look at the strain that that industry has been, I think they’re having to produce at about 130 percent what they were producing at this time last year, just because our, our eating and our buying habits are different. And so they’re pulling out all the stops going to 24/7 operations and so forth and attempt to be able to make that a reality. So I think you’re seeing the residual effects of shifting in the way in which we’re buying. And for sure we’re buying more non-disposable items, things that we can stock them on in, on our shelves. I would add that for those of us who are in certain places like Florida and elsewhere, where we’re getting ready for natural disaster preparation. And I think that’s on our minds as well.
REICHARD: There’s limited supply of certain things, but the sting is in higher prices. Are the same forces driving up the cost of food and other consumable goods?
COHEE: Yeah, for sure. I think we saw two and a half, 2.6 percent average growth from April to May, if I’m not mistaken in terms of prices. … Why is that happening? Well, it’s kind of supply and demand. We have higher demand, certainly at the grocers, the grocers are realizing more sales volume, but at the same time, they’re putting a lot more expense. They’re cleaning a lot more. They’re keeping their staff protected, … They’re paying incentives and bonuses in order to be able to keep their staff operating at the levels that are needed. And so more operating costs and more operating costs tend to translate in one way, shape or form to higher prices. So I think that we will continue to see modest levels of price increases as we try to balance this whole thing out.
REICHARD: Should we expect periodic shortages to continue in the coming months? What do you believe the long-term effects of COVID-19 will be on supply chains of the future?
COHEE: Well, … I do expect that there’s going to be continued spot shortages. I don’t think it’s going to be dramatic. Um, unless we were to see a total, you know, something significant, like we saw a few months ago. I don’t think we’re going to return to that. Um, but I do think we’re going to continue to see inefficiencies in the supply for some time probably is just something we’re going to have to continue to deal with as best as we can.
What will it look like in the future? I think this whole thing is going to change the way in which we look at globalization of supply chains. I think we may be at more regional in nature. I think we’re certainly gonna rely less on single sourcing, like we do for China and India for pharmaceuticals and vitamins. Uh, for example, I think we’re going to have more robustness of the supply chain, and I think we’re going to be able to turn faster. … They’re going to be more digitally enabled, but it’s going to take time and we’re going to continue to see inefficiencies, I think, until some of that is realized.
REICHARD: Lane Cohee teaches supply chain management at Palm Beach Atlantic University. Thanks so much for joining us today!
COHEE: Thank you. It’s a pleasure, Mary.
BRIAN BASHAM, HOST: If you’ve ever tried to grow tomatoes, you know how hard it is to keep the squirrels from stealing them.
Pity the farmers of Botswana.
Some farm in a floodplain where 8,000 pound elephants come for water. Along the way, they trample the crops.
The solution is to reroute the elephants. But how?
Well, a scientist from Australia figured it out.
Tempe Adams thought that maybe elephants aren’t big fans of disco lights. The farmers offered to try out the idea. So Adams rigged a system of multicolored strobe lights to flicker on and off at night.
According to her research, published in a journal earlier this month, 75 percent of the time … the disco lights stopped the elephants from trampling the crops.
MR: Hey, I grew up in the 70s. I like disco.
BAHSAM: It’s The World and Everything in It.
BRIAN BASHAM, HOST: Today is Tuesday, July 28th.
You’re listening to The World and Everything in It and we are so glad you are!
Good morning. I’m Brian Basham.
MARY REICHARD, HOST: And I’m Mary Reichard.
Coming next: honoring a hometown hero. A few years ago we featured a Georgia man on our occasional series, What Do People Do All Day?
After retirement,Vance Luke spent the next 30 years of his life serving both local and international communities. He died one year ago but we just learned of it this month. WORLD reporter Myrna Brown brings his story.
AMBI: OUTDOORS GOD’S FARM: (lawn mower starts)
MYRNA BROWN, REPORTER: It was the summer of 20-18. Vance Luke sat on a red, industrial lawn mower, ready to wage war on ankle-high grass. On that warm day in Temple, Georgia, Luke was just a few weeks shy of his 100th birthday.
LARRY TEEM: I got a friend I want to introduce you to. Myrna wants to interview you because you’re so young.
Larry Teem owns the 58-acre day and residential campground for underserved children and youth. He calls it God’s Farm. Luke was his grounds and maintenance man.
TEEM: One time I thought wouldn’t it be great if we could get a hydroelectric coming off our creek. I said how do we know how much power we can get from a stream? He goes, it’s the head and the flow and he starts scribbling. And I said Vance when’s the last time you used that formula. And he said back in college, which was in the 30s.
Serving, Luke said, kept his mind and body young.
LUKE: Well I really don’t feel much different than I did when I was 60. Keep working, just keep doing something even when you don’t feel like doing it.
Born in Aberdeen, South Dakota, on September 25, 1918, Vance Luke grew up on a farm. Later, he served as a major in the Army Air Corps during World War II. A mechanical engineer, he worked on the fuel system for the B-52 bomber. When he retired, he used his hands and mind to build and repair nearly every building on God’s Farm. But Teem says Luke’s greatest asset was unseen.
LARRY TEEM: He knew who he was in Christ and that was the guiding source of his life.
LUKE: My prayer is that He keeps me healthy until He takes me home.
On Saturday, August 17, 20-19 Luke had a one-car accident about 15 minutes into his hour-long drive home.
TEEM: He actually picked figs that morning and then cut grass.
Teem says they believe he had a heart attack or stroke while driving.
TEEM: I called his daughter Kay up in Ohio. And she just said, you know, he went out with his boots on. He worked all day. He didn’t suffer and he didn’t hurt anybody.
Married 65 years before the death of his wife Mary Gay, the Lukes raised three childen, Ginger, Vance Jr., and Kay.
KAY MASON: I knew that he prayed for all of us by name every night on his knees. And I counted on that.
Seventy-five-year-old Kay Mason says she and her siblings also looked forward to their annual mission trips with their father—all seven of them. Luke was 93-years old on their first trek to Africa.
KAY MASON: And we said, should we ask dad? And Jr. said, well you better tell him that it’s a 25-hour flight and it’s rough terrain and high altitude. As soon as I told him, he said, yep I’m going.
Luke was in charge of construction. Mason says her father worked harder than any of them.
KAY MASON: We built two classrooms, a kitchen, and a 350 chicken coop. And we visited families, we got shoes for kids that didn’t have shoes. We started the lunch program and five farms there. So, he was right there in the middle of all of it. Well actually, he was leading a lot of it because he knew a lot more than we did.
They even celebrated his 100th birthday in Africa.
KAY MASON: There’s this little restaurant in the town of Kajabi and they knew we were coming to celebrate his birthday. And there were a number of Kenyans that had just come pretending that they were having dinner. They wanted to see what dinner for a hundred year old was going to be like.
Luke was also a grandfather to six, great grandfather to nine and great-great grandfather to three.
BETH: My name is Beth and I’m a granddaughter of Vance Luke. I am the second oldest of six grandchildren.
A nurse in the Navy, Beth is serving her last tour of duty in Southern Italy. While she wasn’t able to attend Luke’s homegoing service, she says she has another special memory of her grandpa.
BETH: I had recently transferred to Okinawa, Japan. So, I was getting ready for work one day listening to The World And Everything in It. And I got to the piece on What do people do all day, and thought, this story sounds familiar. And so I started listening a little more intently and then I heard my grandfather’s voice and I couldn’t believe it! It was such a blessing to me being so far away and a surprise you know, to hear his voice and to listen to that story.
Beth says she immediately called her grandfather for more details.
BETH: I said grandpa, I just heard you on a newscast that I listen to every morning. And he just started laughing. He just, you know, started laughing.
She calls that a classic Vance Luke response.
BETH: I’ve always just been amazed by his humility and his servant heart.
AMBI: FARM ANIMALS
Back on the farm, a brand new building is going up. It’s the first structure Vance Luke didn’t have his hands on, but Teem says his influence is all over it.
LARRY TEEM: We’re calling it the Vance Luke Training Center. We realized how many kids don’t know how to hammer a nail or use a screw gun. So we’re taking kids and just teaching them how to build things and paint things and how to take things apart and put them back together again. That’s one of his legacies on the farm.
AMBI FROM LAWN MOWER
Reporting for WORLD, I’m Myrna Brown.
BRIAN BASHAM, HOST: Today is Tuesday, July 28th. Good morning! This is The World and Everything in It from listener-supported WORLD Radio. I’m Brian Basham.
MARY REICHARD, HOST: And I’m Mary Reichard. Commentator Ryan Bomberger now with thoughts on the founding principles of our nation.
RYAN BOMBERGER, COMMENTATOR: America. A nation that spans from sea to shining sea, with the most culturally, economically, religiously and ethnically diverse population on earth—and the most free.
Of course, that depends on who you talk to. Modern reductionist thinking filters every American problem or failure down to one unforgiveable sin: slavery. The New York Times’ exercise in historical fantasy, the 1619 Project, looks at every aspect of American life through the broken prism, or rather, prison of race and the slavery.
Just to clarify, the evil of slavery existed for hundreds of years in Africa before the Transatlantic Slave Trade. Tragically, that beautiful continent still leads the world in slavery today. Sin is endemic regardless of the hue of skin.
Despite all the naysayers and revisionists, America is a nation founded on eternal principles. The Declaration of Independence made a claim that no other nation had declared before: that all men are created equal.
Benjamin Bannaker—former slave, author, mathematician and creator of an annual almanac—praised the Declaration of Independence in a 1791 letter to Thomas Jefferson. Bannaker recalled Jefferson’s denunciation of Britain’s tyranny and how it reduced the colonies to “a State of Servitude.” He called upon the Founding Father to see the same tyranny in America’s own enslaved captives who should share in the same blessings of liberty.
Bannaker called the Declaration of Independence—quote—“This true and invaluable doctrine, which is worthy to be recorded and remembered in all Succeeding ages.” End quote.
Our Constitution is an instrument to ensure those unalienable rights invoked by our first founding document. Frederick Douglass—a former slave, an abolitionist, author, journalist and human rights advocate—initially denounced the law of the land as a pro-slavery document.
But in time came to praise it, saying—quote—“…it is anti-slavery, because it looked to the abolition of slavery rather than to its perpetuity…it showed that the intentions of the framers of the Constitution were good, not bad.” End quote.
The State’s Department’s Commission on Unalienble Rights understands this. The commission’s draft report, released earlier this month, celebrates our Constitution and highlights the crucial nature of religious freedom.
It praises the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights for “faith in fundamental human rights” and “in the dignity and worth of the human person.” The commission contends that many basic rights are in peril and declares: “The broad consensus that once supported the [Universal Declaration’s] principles is more fragile than ever, even as gross violations of human rights and dignity continue apace.”
We see how even the concept of human rights has been weaponized to demonize and deny others their rights. An increasing attack on religious liberty and free speech threatens to deprive many of their most basic human rights.
America models justice unlike any other nation on earth. I’m thankful for champions, like former civil rights leader Robert Woodson, who challenge attempts to write American exceptionalism out of history. His 1776 Unites Campaign is an antidote to the toxic 1619 Project.
As a Christian, my sinful past does not define me. The same goes for our nation. Let’s choose to see our past clearly and move forward together in the pursuit of freedom.
I’m Ryan Bomberger.
BRIAN BASHAM, HOST: Tomorrow: Congress is debating a new COVID-19 stimulus package. We’ll get into the details on Washington Wednesday.
And, World Tour. International news with Onize Ohikere.
That and more tomorrow.
I’m Brian Basham.
MARY REICHARD, HOST: And I’m Mary Reichard.
The World and Everything in It comes to you from WORLD Radio.
WORLD’s mission is biblically objective journalism that informs, educates, and inspires.
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